Tuesday, June 30, 2009

"It's easier to slide up Niagara Falls than it is to understand a woman"
-Gary Cooper, as Wild Bill Hickock, in "The Plainsman"

[quote unverified]
[In our last entry, we began the story of "shootist" Wild Bill Hickock and his visits to Niagara. The account concludes here. - MR]

By the time of Wild Bill Hickock's second visit to Niagara, in 1872, he had one of the best-known names in America. Despite [or maybe because of] a muddled reporting of the facts of his life [some of which was done by Hickock himself; he stated he had personally killed about 100 men in gunfights, while the real figure was probably closer to 25], Hickock was the hero of "dime-store" novels, becoming perhaps the first media-created personality in America. But the reality was different from the myth. Self-proclaimed "best friend" Charlie Utter had begun taking on the job, when in Hickock's vicinity, of keeping him away from alcohol and gambling, Hickock's two principal vices. Being famed as the "fastest gun" in America also was becoming a curse, as more and more "young guns" wanted a chance to beat him. Hickock was still making a good living with his fame and skill [presented in shooting exhibitions], but the years were beginning to take their toll.

In October of 1871, Hickock, then serving as Marshall of Abilene, Ks., accidentally killed one of his deputies during a gun battle. The error was said to be haunting him. Perhaps he was looking to give up his "shootist" career. He had seen his friend Buffalo Bill Cody take on an easier life, as impresario of a "Wild West Show" that toured the "civilized" East. Hickock, in association with Niagara Falls showman Thomas Barnett, decided to put on his own show in Niagara Falls, Ont., near Barnett's "museum".

Barnett spent almost a year, and a great deal of money, putting the spectacular together. He went to Nebraska to purchase wild buffalo for the "hunt" sequence, as well as hiring Indians to take part [the local tribes apparently being unable or unwilling to handle the skills of their Plains brethren].

The advertising for the show, set for the end of August, was appropriately florid. Posters noted that the wild animals imported for the event would be afterwards housed in a huge park built for the purpose. The spectacle itself what set for a 15-acre park, fenced in for the spectators' safety, and capable of holding fifty thousand [the actual turn-out, around two-thousand, paid 50 cents each for the privilege].

The day started with a lacrosse match featuring the Six Nations tribes of the area. More than one contemporary account of the show declared it the highlight of the day. Then the big hunt began. Wild Bill led out a party of four Indians, augmented by four "Mexican Vaqueros". The crowd began to grumble. Was this the giant hunt they'd been promised?

Then things got worse. The "wild" buffaloes were released. There were but two, along with an ox that had been recruited at the last moment to fill out the pack. The grumbles expanded into open cat-calls and hooting. The animals, taking on the spirit of the day, did as little running as possible, and ended up grazing in the middle of the ring. A chorus of boos rained down from the spectators. Hickock was spectacular, as usual, in a shooting exhibition [until the last months of his life, when he was diagnosed with cataracts, he was one of the best shots of the era], but the damage had been done. One of the kinder reviews of the day called the event "a swindle" and "a farce".

Hickock actually put on a few more such events around the country, but never as well as his old friend Cody. His life spiralled down until, unable to see to shoot, he was forced to make a living as a gambler. Wild Bill's life ended during a hand of poker, in August of 1876. He was shot [from behind; even then, the gunman wanted to take no chances with Hickock's skill] while holding the black eights and aces, a hand immortalized ever after as the "dead man's hand". Those who claim to predict the future with playing cards believe the Ace of Spades is a harbinger of death; was Something trying to warn Hickock of his doom? Who can say?

Charlie Utter, faithful to the end, claimed Hickock's remains, and gave them rest in the Deadwood cemetery.Ironically Utter, who may have suggested Niagara to his friend, seems to have disappeared after the burial, and nothing is known of his last days.

Next time, a return to the stunters of Niagara. Until then, be well and happy.

-Mike Riley

Tuesday, June 16, 2009

Wild Bill Hickock - The Shootist

[This is another in an occasional series of posts about characters who, while not fitting into the "daredevil" classification, unquestionably added to the legend of Niagara. I hope you enjoy it. - MR]

In the early days of exploration and colonization of North America, Niagara Falls was the Wild West. The area now known as Western New York state and the Niagara Region of Ontario changed hands several times in the Eighteenth - and early Nineteenth - century. Old Fort Niagara, a military compound of the era still extant in Youngstown, NY, was at various times operated by the French, British, and United States military.

Of course, by the mid-1800's, the vast majority of the American continent had been explored, and was beginning to be populated. One James Butler Hickock was born in May of 1837, in what is now Troy Grove, IL. His parents were devoutly Christian, and deeply involved in the anti-slavery movement of the era [their farm was a stop on the Underground Railroad escape route for slaves, and legend says young James Hickock picked up his phenomenal shooting skills from a young age, helping his parents defend their property from slave catchers.]. His father was killed in a gun battle with slavers when James was 14. Four years later, after a fight [non-shooting, apparently] in which Hickock mistakenly believed he had killed his opponent, he fled to the Kansas Territory. While there, he joined a vigilante anti-slave "army", and met a 12-year-old scout named William Cody. Years, later, Cody, known as "Buffalo Bill", would become another legendary Wild West figure.

While in Kansas, Hickock began his career as a gun fighter or, as some practitioners called themselves, "shootist". While several of his alleged "gunfights" have been brought into question, there is no doubt that Hickock, equipped with hand-eye coordination said to be among the best of his time, dropped more than a few challengers in single combat. (Also during this time, Hickock picked up the nickname "Duck-bill", no doubt due to his elongated nose and protruding lips. After growing a mustache, and with a little encouragement on his part [would you say "no" to Mr. Hickock?], the name was changed to Wild Bill, by which he was known the rest of his life.

Hickock served with distinction in the Union Army during the Civil War, becoming known as an excellent scout. After the War, he remained in the Army, serving a brief stint with the Seventh Cavalry [then-commanding officer George Armstrong Custer was said to be rather impressed with him]; in time, he joined up with old friend "Buffalo Bill" Cody , and made his living as a buffalo hunter. In 1867, he took part in a famous interview with Henry Morton Stanley, who would become world-famous a few years later after finding long-missing African explorer and missionary David Livingstone.

1867 turned out to be a busy year for Wild Bill. In addition to the Stanley interview, Hickock decided he'd had enough of frontier life, and moved to, of all places, Niagara Falls! While there, he decided to try his hand at acting, joining the cast of a play called The Daring Buffalo Chases Of The Plains. Skill with a handgun, however, did not translate into skills on stage. Word soon trickled out that Hickock was a dreadful actor [my definition of "the bravest person in Niagara Falls" during that time would be "anyone who told Wild Bill Hickock the truth about his acting"]. In time, even Hickock got the message, and returned to the West.

As you read the last paragraph, you may have asked yourself [as I did when I heard the story of what would be Hickock's first visit to Niagara], "Why, of all the places Wild Bill could have gone, did he select the Falls?" Well, Niagara Falls was a known tourist destination even then, and Hickock perhaps thought he could make a living with some sort of tourist attraction. But there may have been another reason.

Charles Utter was born near Niagara Falls in 1838, the year after Hickock. Most of his childhood was spent in Illinois and, on adulthood he, like Wild Bill, drifted to Kansas. It's believed the two met there, although no one is exactly sure of the circumstances. Utter was a character in his own right; just five-and-a-half feet tall, he was considered a "dandy" in his day. Utter wore hand-tooled buckskins, pistols decorated with gold, silver, and pearl, kept himself immaculately groomed, even in the wilds of Colorado, and had the unprecedented [for that time and place, anyway] habit of taking a daily bath! (This was not his only oddity: while "on the camp", he slept in a tent kept as clean as himself. He gave standing instructions to all, even his best friend Hickock, not to enter his tent on pain of being shot!) The two men kept in contact during their roving lives, and it's possible that Utter may have told Wild Bill of the wonder in his home town.
At any rate, Hickock, as noted above, first came to Niagara in 1867. Next time, the story of his return trip a few years later, and the "Wild West Spectacular" he put on that turned out to be little more than a "dog and pony" show. Until then, be well and happy.
-Mike Riley